How Strong is China’s High-Speed Railway?
The first high-speed rail line in the United States, connecting two major cities in Texas.
High-speed rail construction in Houston and Dallas.
How Strong Is China’s High-speed Railway?
The whole journey is 386 kilometers, running at about 260 kilometers per hour.
Construction will begin as early as next year and is expected to be open to traffic by 2027.
It is reported that the high-speed rail will bring the commuting time between the two places.
Shortened from 4 hours to 90 minutes.
Why is us, the world’s largest economy, building high-speed trains now?
The government was interested in building California’s high-speed rail as early as 2008.
California’s high-speed rail project connects two of the west’s biggest cities.
Los Angeles to San Francisco ,but then the controversy, the question finally causes the project to run aground.
In 2008, then-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger went out on a high-speed rail project in California.
The project could cut a nine-hour drive to two-and-a-half hours.
Facing a series of financing, cost and land acquisition problems.
Construction didn’t begin until 2015. subsequently because cost increases greatly, the reason such as construction period is prolonged.
In February 2019, the governor of California announced,the 826.8 km high-speed rail line will be shortened to 191 km.
It is equivalent to completing only a small part of the road ,San Francisco and Los Angeles cannot be separated from each other.
By connecting them, California’s high-speed rail project is almost certain to die.
Once upon a time, there was no mention of high-speed rail.
While enjoying the convenience it brings,many feel this is China regardless of cost.
It also destroys the environmental prestige project,some even argue that the same investment would be more cost-effective.
Today, the United States has a highly developed civil aviation system,They’re going to start building high-speed trains.
So what is the point of China’s high-speed trains?
What do its plan and construction have exquisite again?
Today we’re going to talk about it.
First to develop a high-speed railway, where is the driving force?
As with America’s preoccupation with aviation.
China has a penchant for high-speed rail.
By the end of 2019, according to the Ministry of Transport.
The length of China’s high-speed railway has reached 35,000 kilometers, ranking first in the world.
High-speed trains have a lot of capacity.fast speed and extremely stable and predictable.
China’s once fragmented and fragmented economic regions.
Integrated into a powerful whole.
It has greatly improved the operating efficiency of the Chinese economy.
And when it comes to high-speed rail capacity, it’s almost scary.
The minimum departure interval for HSR trains can be up to 3 minutes, as long as the trains are properly scheduled.
At 1,000 passengers per train, only in one direction.
It can transport 20,000 passengers an hour.
This is an astronomical figure for both aviation and roads.
In the past few decades ,China’s transport capacity is always in short supply.
The construction of high-speed rail has suddenly released a lot of potential traffic demand.
It also means generating a lot of market activity.
Not only that, in terms of military and disaster relief.
High-speed rail also has great potential.
It can not affect people’s normal travel under the premise.
Complete large-scale deployment.
Moreover, compared with other means of transportation.
High-speed rail is extremely expensive to build.
But operating and maintenance costs are relatively low.
High-speed trains must run on extremely flat tracks.
So when it comes to high mountains and deep valleys, it is necessary to build Bridges and dig holes across them.
This has resulted in its high construction costs.
However, once the running time is long.
The economics of high-speed rail is there.
The rate of depreciation of commercial passenger aircraft is very fast.
Fuel, maintenance, everything costs money, as long as it works.
The spending day is just around the corner.
Car travel is a very expensive way to get around.
The short distance is ok, long-distance traffic cost rises sharply.
High-speed rail is not without cost, of course.
High-speed trains consume a lot of power.
High-speed trains and tracks also need maintenance every night.
But compared to the huge capacity of high-speed rail.
These costs are not high.
In addition, the life of high-speed rail is very long.
The high construction costs are spread out over decades and hundreds of years.
It’s not so high anymore.
Based on the huge capacity and low marginal cost of high-speed rail.
The third and most important feature of high-speed rail was introduced.
Huge positive externalities.
In layman’s terms, it means spending a dollar on high-speed rail.
Society as a whole benefit much more than a dollar.
When a place once connected to the high-speed rail.
People and capital would move quickly, and the economy would grow rapidly.
Whether high-speed rail itself makes money or not.
Society as a whole will benefit greatly from this.
Whether to build high-speed railways or airports is a question.
Many criticize the country’s high-speed rail construction.
An important reason is that China is not just building high-speed trains in the developed east.
In the underdeveloped Midwest, there are even many poor mountain ditches.
High-speed rail too ,these places are poor on the one hand.
On the other hand, the rugged terrain makes high-speed rail more expensive to build.
Does it make sense to build high-speed trains in these places?
This starts with China’s economic logic, with 1.4 billion people, China is a vast country.
As a result, economic growth has been uneven for decades.
It hopes to develop several city clusters and dozens of large cities.
It is impossible to solve the development problem of 1.4 billion people.
If you can’t take the poor Midwestern small cities.
Establish close ties with big cities, China will become a large part of Africa.
Strange complex with small areas of Europe.
Geographical differences can never be bridged and long-term growth is bound to stagnate.
These so-called remote areas.
Only the economic development is relatively backward and the city scale is small.
But by no means off the beaten track, it has huge economic potential.
In addition, after the completion of the high-speed rail to assume the passenger functions.
It will also be able to carry the capacity of the previously busy Universal railway.
Free up for freight ,it indirectly reduces the freight cost of universal railway.
At this point, a lot of people might ask ,these functions of high-speed rail feeder flights can also be met.
Why don’t you choose to build the airport? Isn’t that what’s done in other countries?
That’s right if you just look at the construction costs.
It will cost about 200 million yuan to build a kilometer of high-speed rail.
To build a regional airport, it only needs about 400 million yuan.
The bigger one is a little over a billion yuan.
In addition, the western region of China is vast.
The population density is relatively low.
Such places would be convenient and economical to build more regional airports.
And that’s exactly what China is doing, according to the development plan.
The number of airports to be transported by CAAC during the 13th Five-Year Plan period.
About 260 ,the number of general airports should reach more than 500.
Most of the new projects will be in the Midwest ,some Midwestern prefecture-level cities will even be like provincial capitals.
A city has two or three airports ,but, as we said earlier.
High-speed rail and regional airports are economical only in terms of construction costs.
Airports are superior to high-speed rail, but once the operating costs are added later.
That may not be the case.
Just as many people joke that there are only Beijing and Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, And Nanjing and Hangzhou in China.
A few high-speed lines, such as shanghai-Hangzhou, are profitable.
Most high-speed trains are lossmaking.
Small and medium-sized airports in the world today.
Long-term losses on regional and regional airlines are also widespread problems.
So, specific to a particular region.
Should we build high-speed trains or airports?
It is the result of the consideration of many factors.
(c) Speed is king. How important is the speed of HSR?
Compared with other means of transportation, the speed of high-speed rail is its killer card.
In reality, 350km/h of high-speed rail.
The 1,000km journey takes about 3.5 hours.
If you take a plane,consider that airports are generally built far from the city.
Waiting time, boarding time, security check time plus airport time.there is no way to make the trip in 3.5 hours.
Not to mention the high probability of delay,So, within 1,000 kilometers.
The 350km/h high-speed railway has obvious advantages over aviation.
However, if the speed of high-speed rail is reduced to 250km/h.
The dominant distance would be reduced to a mere 700 kilometers.
If you think about the area covered by traffic.
This means that the advantages of high-speed rail will be cut in half.
Therefore, for the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway such as the national traffic arteries.
There is no dispute that the faster the better,however, this conclusion is not absolute.
High-speed rail is not just for arteries,to improve provincial competitiveness.
Provinces tend to build some provincial capitals.
A high-speed intercity railway connected with prefecture-level cities in the province.
Form various two-hour traffic circles.
These intercity lines tend to have short traffic distances and many stops.
Does a 350km/h high-speed train have little time-saving advantage.
But the cost is high,therefore, in the construction of inter-city high-speed railway within the province.
People do not usually opt for 350km/h ,just like any other technology.
The existence of high-speed rail technology is inherently human ,it’s not about showmanship, high-speed trains of all speeds.
Each has its place ,By the end of 2020.
The total length of China’s railways in operation will reach 146,000 km.
Covering about 99% of cities with a population of 200,000 or more.
Among them, the high-speed railway includes about 39,000 kilometers of intercity railway.
Continue to lead the world.
By 2030, China will achieve internal and external connectivity.
Interregional highways are unblocked and the provincial capitals are connected by high-speed railways.
Prefectures and cities have fast access and counties have basic coverage.
What do you think of China’s high-speed trains?
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